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rome timeline

The following table includes a Rome timeline to show Roman leaders, roman history, major events and Roman art. It is limited to what are generally regarded as the most interesting features of the history of Rome with a continuous Rome Timeline on the left column. The corresponding monuments of Rome which can be visited are included in the right hand column. You can also download a copy to print at home. The links within the text give access to further information about those items of ancient Rome.

Time-line & Notes


State affairs

Other Events

Prominent persons

ROME: Art and Architecture


  • Fall of Troy.
  • Aeneas escapes for Italy and founds Lavinium.
  • Aeneas' son Ascanius founds Alba Longa at a site near the future Rome.
  • 10 generations after Ascanius, Amulius steals the kingdom from his brother Numitor and forces Numitor's daughter Rhea Silvia, future mother of Romulus and Remus, to become a Vestal Virgin.
    Rhea Silvia hides the boys in a basket and sends it down the Tiber river where they are found by a She Wolf (probably a prostitute actually) and a shepherd called Faustulus.
  • Romulus and Remus avenge their uncle and mother and leave Alba Longa to found their own city - Rome.
  • Remains of shepherd huts and settlements found around the Palatine and Capitoline hills dating back to the 10th century BC.

21st or 24th of April 753BC ?

Rome founded by Romulus.

Class structure of the population.

Ruling structure was King, Senate, Citizens.



Founder and first King of Rome

Citizens of Rome divided into

Patricians, Clients, Slaves and Plebeians

Elders of Patrician families (the nobility) are Senators (from "senex", meaning "old").

  • Rome founded "Ab Urbe Condita".
  • Romulus invites all who wish to come to become citizens.
  • Women taken from the nearby Sabine people (probably alluding to taking of the salt trade).
  • Peace made with the Sabines who settle on the Palatine.
  • The "first" families are the nobles or Patricians. Only they have Roman citizenship.
  • Romulus kills his brother Remus in a fight as they plough the sacred furrow (Pomoerium) round the city. Romulus remains sole ruler of the new city.
  • Treachery of Tarpeia allows the Sabines to enter the city but the Sabine women force peace.
  • 715 BC Romulus dies. He appears in a vision predicting that Rome will be capital of the world.
  • Homer, poet (800BC).

Writer of the Iliad and Odissey: the roots of western literature.

  • Hut on the Palatine hill
  • Tomb of Romulus - "Lapis Niger" plaque placed by Julius Caesar in the Forum
  • Tarpeian Rock on the Palatine reminds us of Tarpeia's treachery.

700BC Six kings of Rome after Romulus:

Debut of the gods Jupiter, Mars, Janus and Terminus.

Numa Pompilius


A Sabine elected by the Romans

  • 43 years of peace.
  • Temple of Janus on Capitol with doors closed in times of peace.

A belligerant so-and-so who taught his subjects the art of war but forgot to worship the gods.

Tullus Hostilius.


3rd King of Rome

  • Became ruler of Alba Longa also.
  • Alba Longa destroyed and citizens moved to Rome.
  • Picked a war with Alba Longa. The victor was decided by a fight between the Horatii and Curiatii brothers.

650 BC

Ancus Martius


4th King of Rome - Grandson of Numa Pompilius (2nd King).

Made the Etruscan Tarquinius Priscus tutor of his sons.

  • Ancus was pious and fortified Rome.
  • City of Ostia founded at the Tiber's mouth to the Mediterranean.

600 BC

First of the Estruscan kings of Rome.

Lucius Tarquinius Priscus

(616-579BC) - an Etruscan who came from the north and settled in Rome. Father of Lucius Tarquinius (Superbus)

  • The Capitol
  • The Cloaca Maxima sewers
  • The mouth of truth (bocca della verita') is a very famous drain cover.
  • The Circus Maximus

550 BC

Good king Servius - never forgot his humble origins.

Servius Tullius

(579-535BC) - a slave adopted by Tarquinius Priscus. Took power when Tarquinius was murdered by one of Ancus Martius' sons.

  • Servian walls around the city (parts still visible in various points such as by Termini station).
  • Campus Martius area for military training.

End of the Kings of Rome.

Tarquinius Superbus expelled by his nephew Lucius Brutus.

Birth of the Roman hate of Kings

Tarquinius Superbus

(Tarquin the Proud) - Tyrant -

last of the Seven Kings of Rome


(535-509BC) - Etruscan. Together with Servius' daughter he plotted and murdered Servius Tullius in the Forum.

  • Tarquinius' love for war and alliance with his three sons brought many surrounding tribes to heel through force and trickery.
  • 509 Tarquinius allies with Rome's enemies to win his throne back. Roman troops become battle hardened.
  • Sybil of Cumae, seer who wrote the Sybilline books held sacred by all Romans hence forth especially when the city was in danger.
  • Villages of Sutri and Tuscania to the north of Rome. These were Etruscan towns which participated in the Tarquinius Superbus affair.
    They were also the first earthly dominions held by the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.

509BC - Rome becomes a republic

509BC - ?

Period of adjustment as nobles fight for power.

Lucius Brutus - a quasi King - Consul

It is unlikely that a clear system of government emerged imideately to replace the king. A "Magister Populi" or "Praetor" probably took over for set mandates.

Development of the Government of Ancient Rome
  • Economic development during the Etruscan epoch brought merchants, nobles and other free men of various extractions to the city. "Clients"


Constant war and conquest of Italy

Two Consuls are periodically elected out of the "Patricians" (aristocracy) to rule jointly.

In times of war and danger a Dictator is elected for a fixed term of 6 months .


Social struggles continue between nobles and commoners.

  • Tribunes created to represent Plebeian rights and counter-balance power of the nobility (Patricians)
  • Position of "Aedile" created to assist the Tribunes (Julius Caesar was to become aedile 400 years later)
  • 450 Brief rule of the Decemvirs (ten men).
  • Unrest as the plebeians demand land and rights in exchange for their efforts at war.
  • The Plebeians threaten to leave Rome to found their own city.
  • Socrates, philosopher (469-399BC)
  • "Capitoline Wolf", bronze statue of Etruscan manufacture in the Capitoline Museum. It represents the She-wolf and Romulus and Remus.
  • The archetypal symbol of Rome.

390BC Records and "authentic" history of Rome begins.

All previous written records were destroyed during the Gaulish invasion of Rome in 390BC

  • Consular power continues
  • Deeds of Cincinnatus who was called to leave his work as farmer to serve as Dictator. He defeated the Aequians and then returned to work his small farm.
  • Deeds of Coriolanus
  • Wars of Camillus against the Etruscans.
  • 391 Etruscan city of Veii is sieged and taken just to the north of Rome.
  • Prophecy that the taking of Veii would precede the taking of Rome….
  • 390 Gauls take Rome but not the Capitol.
  • Plebeians gain right to a position close to that of a Consul:
    "Military Tribune with Consular Powers"
  • Aristoteles, philosopher. 384-322 BC. Student of Plato and Tutor to Alexander the Great. As a philosopher he established the bases of the scientific disciplines.

350-300 BC

Patricians and Plebeians achieve equal rights in the state.

  • Government of Rome still held by 2 elected Consuls.
  • At least one Consul must be Plebeian.
  • Romans and Etruscans allies
  • 343-290 Wars against the Samnites and Latins (powerful Italian tribes).
  • Roman treaties with Latin cities.
  • "Capitoline Brutus", very rare bronze portrait bust held in the Capitoline Museum. Myth has it that it is of Lucius Brutus - First Consul of the Republic.


Conquest of Italy brings Rome face to face with Carthage as war for dominance of the Mediterranean seas

  • 211 Archimedes killed


81-79 General Sulla Dictator

60 Caesar, Pompey and Crassus - First Triumvirate (division of rule of Rome by three men)

48 Julius Caesar Dictator

  • Gracchi brothers, politicians of socialist ideals. Forefathers and inspiration to all future revolutionaries.
  • Julius Caesar, great military leader, dictator of Rome.
  • Vitruvius

"The first architect of Rome". Maker of war machines for Caesar and Augustus. Wrote ten books which hand down Roman technology and architecture.


50 BC

End of the Roman Republic

43 Mark-Anthony, Lepidus & Octavianus (Augustus Caesar) form second Triumvirate

  • Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero)
    106BC-43BC, Orator, Writer and Lawyer. His politics were generally opposed to those of Julius Caesar.

Beginning of the Roman Empire.

Year 0

Emperor and Pontifex Maximus (religious leader)

4BC Birth of Jesus Christ.



(Initially called Octavianus)


  • 27BC Emperor Octavian is renamed Augustus "The Great One".
  • 29BC Doors to the temple of Janus on the Capitol are closed (peace).
  • 4AD Augustus adopts Tiberius
  • Agrippa (63- 12BC), brother in law of Augustus. Built the Pantheon.
  • Horace (65-8BC), poet.
  • Livy (59-BC-17AD), historian
  • Virgil (70-19BC), poet.
  • 29BC Mausoleum (tomb) of Augustus and family.
  • 9BC
    Ara Pacis altar to peace.
  • 2BC Forum of Augustus
  • Pantheon built by Agrippa in honor of Augustus.


29AD Jesus Christ Crucified

Tiberius (14-37) Became a Tyrant.

Caligula (37-41) Had some brain disorder/madness

  • 14-16 German military campaign
  • Ovid (43BC-18AD), poet. Generally regarded as an equal to Virgil.


End of the Julio-Claudian line of emperors

Claudius (41-54) - Good guy with a stutter. Poisoned with a plate of mushrooms by his wife, mother of Nero.

Nero (54-68) - wanted to be an artist and went a little crazy under the strain of politics.

  • 43 Claudius conquers southern Britain
  • 62 Nero's period of madness begins when he does away with his meddling mother and wife.
  • Seneca (3BC-65AD), philosopher and tutor to Nero.

He spent a period as co-administrator of the empire during which time the empire lived a period of splendour.

  • 64 Nero's Domus Aurea (the Golden House). Included a colossal statue of Nero which years later was moved to the Colosseum (the "Flavian Amphitheatre") and hence gave it its common name of "Colosseum"


Domitian is a plebeian.

Start of the Flavian line of emperors

69 - Year of the four emperors followed by….

Vespasian (69-79) - Pragmatic soldier.

Titus (79-81) - Good and idealistic

Domitian (81-96)

  • 70 Titus takes and loots Jerusalem
  • 80 Dominions in Britain extended to Scotland.
  • 85 War against the Dacians.
  • Pliny the Elder (24-79), writer.
  • Quintilian (35-95), orator.
  • Tacitus (55-118). Great Roman historian.


Start of the "Adoptive emperors" - Five good emperors

Nerva (96-98) - A good senator not cut out to be Emperor

Trajan (98-117) - Great

  • 96 Nerva chosen as emperor by the Senate.
  • Nerva adopts the Spaniard Trajan - the first emperor from the provinces.
  • Plutarch (46-120) Historian and Philosopher.
  • Pliny the Younger (62-113)
  • Juvenal (68-128), poet


Hadrian (117-138) - Fabulous. Went a little quiet and morose when his lover Antinous drowned. He also wrote one of the most lovely poems: "Animula Vascula Blandula"

  • Peace of the empire through border fortifications.
  • Hadrian's wall in Britannia.
  • Hadrian journeys throughout the empire (see Yourcenar - "Hadrian's memoirs").
  • Birth of bureaucrats.
  • Apolodorus of Damascus (100AD), Architect
  • Suetonius (70-130), writer-historian (Biography of the Caesars).
  • 117 Hadrian's villa in Tivoli
  • 118 Pantheon burnt down and rebuilt in its current form.
  • 134 Hadrian's mausoleum (then transformed into Castel St. Angelo)


Antonine line of emperors.

End of "Pax Romana"

Antoninus Pius (138-161). Pious as his name suggests.

Marcus Aurelius (161-180). A philosopher-emperor. Last of the "5 good emperors".

Lucius Verus (161-169)

Commodus (176-192) - Mad on Gladiator fights. Died strangled in his bath by a fighter.

  • Antoninus Pius brings the greatest period of peace.
  • 164 War against the Parthians (see column of Marcus Aurelius)
  • 165-180 Black death (Plague) epidemic throughout the empire.
  • Commodus restarts succession by birth.
  • 141 Temple of Antoninus Pius and Faustina in the Forum.
  • 145 Temple of Hadrian (on Piazza di Pietra square).
  • 176 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius
  • Column of Marcus Aurelius "Colonna Antonina"
  • Amazing portrait bust of Commodus as Hercules in the Capitoline Museum


Start of Severus line of emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211)

Caracalla (198-217) - Killed his brother and rubbed his name out.

  • 208-211 War against the Britons.
  • Caracalla murders his brother.
  • Victory against Persians, Rome's worst enemy.
  • All free persons of the empire are granted Roman Citizenship ("Constitutio Antoniana")
  • 205-270 Plotinus , Philosopher
  • 203 Arch of Septimius Severus
  • 204 Arch of the Argentari (money changers)
  • 216 Caracalla thermal baths

Continuous wars and rebellion across the empire.

  • 3rd-4th centuries Catacombs of St. Callisto


Macrius (217)

Heliogabalus (218-222)

  • Calixtus I (217-222) underlines the position of "Bishop of Rome" as head of the church.



Severus/Alexander/ Maximin/Thrax, Gordian I, II, III, Philip and others, Decius and others, Gallienus and others, Claudius II

  • The empire's borders are threatened on all sides.
  • Germanic barbarians suppressed as they push into northern Italy.



(270-275) a good emperor to give the long line of bad ones a breather.

  • 272 Beautiful empress Zenobia of Palmira subdued and transferred to Rome.
  • 274 Gaul retaken and empire reunited.
  • Diogenes, History of Philisophy.
  • 270 Building of the Aurelian defence walls around Rome.
  • 270 Gate of Saint Sebastian onto the Appian way.

(275-284): Tacitus, Probus, Carus, Carinus, Numerian



Tetrarchy (four rulers sharing) power).

Empire split into East and West.

Diocletian (284-305). Generally a good emperor. Realized the need for heavy reforms but also persecuted the Christians.

Hats off to him for resigning his post according to self-imposed mandate. Enjoyed his vegetable garden thereafter.

  • 293 Significant reforms of the empire and institutions. Tetrarchy.
  • 297 Division of the empire into manageable units.
  • Suppression of revolts and security of borders.
  • Tetrarchy introduced as a means of preventing the continuous military coups d'etat.
  • Oriental style absolute monarch - bad news for the Christians.
  • Eusebius, History of the Church
  • 300 Temple and altar to Mithras under San Clemente church.
  • 300 Thermal baths of Diocletian
  • 303 Decennalia column base.


Maximian, Constantius Chlorus, Galerius, Flavius Severus, Licinus

  • 306 Basilica of Maxentius in the Forum.
  • 306 Maxentius' circus on the Appian way


Acceptance of Christianity.

Shift of power to Constantinople, protecting the West from the East.

Constantine the Great


Every bit as great as his name suggests.

He definitely shaped the future of the West.

  • 312 Victory of general Constantine over general Maxentius.
  • 324 Constantine sole emperor.
  • 330 Bizantium called Constantinople & proclaimed "New Rome".
  • 312 Arch of Constantine
  • 313 Colossal head & hand of Constantine in the Capitoline Museum
  • 313 Church of San Giovanni in Laterano.
  • 319 St. Peter's basilica (subsequently knocked down and rebuilt in its current glory). Some doors are the originals).



Constantine II, Constans, Constantius II,

  • Constantine divides the empire across his three sons (who argue anyway).
  • Arch of Janus in the Forum Boarium

Attempts to reinstate pagan gods.

Julian "the Apostate" (361-363)

  • Paganism makes a final but brief re-appearance.
  • Attempt to introduce Mithras as state religion.


Valentinian and successors

Valentinian (364-375)

Valens, Gratian, Valentinian II

  • 375 Barbarian invasions begin and last through the Middle Ages.
  • Pope Damasus I (366-384) establishes Papal doctrinal authority on basis of succession to St. Peter.
  • 380 Bizantine mosaics of St Constanza and St Pudenziana churches.

Abolition of pagan cults

Theodosius I, Maximus, Eugenius

  • The Spaniard Theodosius is emperor of the Eastern Empire and manages to reunite East and Western empire. The empire is re-divided on his death.
  • Saint Paul's basilica outside the walls.




  • St. Augustin
    (354-430). Reconciles Christianity and the Greek philosophy of Plato.


Valentinian III (425-455)

  • Pope Celestine I (422-432). The third council of Efesus establishes the cult of Mary, mother of God.
  • 430 Wooden paneled doors of St. Sabina basilica.
  • 438 Mosaics in Santa Maria Maggiore church


  • Pope Leo the Great (440-461)
  • Pope recognised by emperor Valentinian III as religious head for empire of the West.
  • First "Pope" as we know them.
  • Basilica of Santa Sabina overlooking circus Maximus on Aventine hill.
  • Wooden portal of St. Sabina has most ancient image of the crucifixion.

475 AD

Last Roman Emperor of the West

Romulus Augustulus

  • 475 The boy emperor Romulus Augustulus is deposed.

Fall of the Roman Empire of the West.


  • Pope Felix IV (526-530)
  • The Benedictine order is established.
  • 526 Church of Saints Cosma and Damiano in the forum. Mosaics.
  • 579 Mosaic on the triumphal arch of St. Laurence outside the walls (church of San Lorenzo).


  • Pope Gregory the Great (590-604). Sets foundations for secular power of the church.
  • First missions to northern Europe and England.
  • 625 Church of Saint Agnes outside the walls (Sant'Agnese fuori le mura)


Pope Stephen justifies secular power over territories through emperor Constantine's supposed inheritance.

  • Pope Stephen II (752-757).
  • Alliance with the Frankish kings. Their conversion from Arianism to church of Rome.
  • Franks leave territorial rule over central Italy to the Pope.
  • Pope Hadrian II (772-795)
  • Church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin on the Forum Boarium.


Leo IV: Affirmation of secular and spiritual power of the Pope. "Papa Caput Totius Orbis". Pope head of the whole world.

  • Coup by Leo III who crowns Charlemagne by surprise on Christmas day "Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" and establishes Papal (divine) right to crown (or not)

896 Bizarre Council of the Cadaver - Pope Formosus' body (9 months long dead) is hauled into St. Peter's to defend "himself" against accusations of ambition, vanity, insubordination to Pope John VIII and failure to keep faith to oath.

  • Charlemagne,
    Holy Roman Emperor
  • Leo III (795-816)
  • Churches built:
    St. Praxedes,
    St. Cecilia in Trastevere
    St. Maria in Domnica.
  • Fortification of the urban areas around the Vatican.
  • Frescoes of the lower church at San Clemente (under Leo IV)


Popes subjected to the (immoral) influence of their lovers.

  • Otho 1st Emperor of the HRE of Germany establishes emperor's right to participate in Papal elections.
  • Abbey of Cluny founded in France.
  • Pope John XII (955-964)
  • Pope Gregory V (996-999). First German Pope. Placed on seat of Peter by his cousin Otho 3rd. Crowns Otho 3rd Emperor.
  • Church of St. Bartholomew (San Bartolomeo).



  • 1077 The Normans loot Rome.
  • 1088-1099 Pope Urban II supports the First Crusade and conquest of Jerusalem. Extreme hunger drove many crusaders to cannibalism.
  • Henry IV excommunicated.
  • Affirmation of Papal power over secular.
  • 1054AD GREAT SCHISM of east and west. Orthodox and Catholic churches separate.
  • Celibacy of the clergy imposed.
  • Leo IX (1049-1054)
  • First of many fights against the sale of positions in the church.
  • Top level of San Clemente
  • Church of Santi Quattro Coronati (the four crowned saints).
    Named after the manner of their martyrdom: Iron crowns of thorns nailed into their sculls.


Treaty which recognises Papal secular power in Rome.

Pope Clement III (1187-1191).

The Pope is recognised by the citizens of Rome as lord of the city.

  • 1146 Arnoldo da Brescia rebels against Papal power over Rome and proclaims a Roman republic.
  • 1155 Arnoldo dB is executed.
  • 1148-51, 1189-92 Second & third Crusades
  • Pope and Henry IV reconciled.
  • The Lateran Council declares independence of the church from secular powers.
  • Pope Calixtus II (1119-1124).
  • Church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin
  • Santa Maria in Trastevere
  • 1150 Basilica of San Saba


Innocent III (1198-1216)

Honorius III (1216-1227)

Gregory IX


1294 Celestine V (abdicates and dies prisoner)

Boniface VIII


  • 1202-70 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Crusades
  • Papal earthly power reaches a peak:

    The Pope is considered God's right-hand-man who grants rulers their earthly powers.
  • 1220 - 1223 Dominican and Franciscan orders established.
  • 1232 Inquisition commences and handed to the Dominicans to execute.
  • Jews closed in Gettos
  • St Thomas Aquinas, Theologian and philosopher (1224-1274).

Marries philosophy of the ancients, particularly Aristotle, and Christian theology so they work together in harmony.

  • 1200 San Lorenzo fuori le mura (Saint Lawrence outside the walls)
  • Bronze statue of St. Peter in St. Peter's basilica.
  • 1280 Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva


French king Philip IV holds Popes captive at Avignon.

Two Popes elected in 1378.

Clement V (1305-1314).

Gregory XI (1347-1378)

1378: Urban VI vs. Clement VIII

  • Lowest ebb in influence of Rome.
  • Lowest ebb in art and culture also.
  • 1300 First Holy Year
  • Clement V recognises clerical dependency on France and moves to Avignon.
  • 1378-1418
    Great schism of the church.

    Pope and anti-Pope.
  • Dante, poet (1265-1321)
  • Giotto, artist (1267-1337)
  • Lowest ebb in art and culture in Rome
  • Mosaics in Santa Maria Maggiore
  • Frescoes in Santa Maria in Trastevere
  • Giotto (Vatican museums)

Rome enters the Renaissance and makes it its own


Pope returns to Rome.

Rome centre of the Renaissance.

Martin V

Nicolas V (1447-1455)

Sixtus IV (1471-1484)

Alexander VI (1492-1503) -

Borgia Pope

  • Renewed Papal authority over central Italy.
  • Reconstruction of Rome.
  • Nepotism and moral decadence.
  • Pope Nicolas attracts men of learning, art and science to Rome.
  • Pope Sixtus starts the great art collections (1471)
  • Fra Angelico, avant guard renaissance painter (monk)


Died in Rome.

  • Bramante architect (1444-1514). A founder of the mature Italian Renaissance.
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Michelangelo (1475-1564)
  • Rafael (1483-1520)
  • Rome becomes center of the Renaissance.
  • Bronze doors of St. Peter's by Filarete.
  • Sistine chapel (1473) &
  • Pieta' statue (1498) by Michelangelo
  • Palazzo della Cancelleria on Capitol
  • Church of Santa Maria del Popolo


Protestant reform.

Catholic Counter Reformation

Holy Inquisition

Rome continues as centre of the Renaissance

Julius II (1503-1513)

Leo X (1513-1521) - de Medici

Clement VII (1523-1534) - de Medici

Paul III (1534-1549) - Farnese family

  • 1527 Rome is looted and pillaged by Charles V.
  • 1500 Holy Year
    • Pope Leo collects money through indulgences to build St. Peter's.
    • 1534 Birth of the Jesuit order
    • 1545 Council of Trent and the Counter Reformation (against the Protestant reform)
  • Martin Luther started the Protestant reform.
  • 1491-1556 St. Ignatius Loyola. Founder of the Jesuit order ("The Society of Jesus").

The strong political influence of the Jesuits led to suppression of the order in 1773.

  • Borromini's Tempietto on the Janiculum
  • Tomb of Julius II by Michelangelo
  • Rebuilding of St. Peters
  • Raphael frescoes in the Vatican apartments
  • Last Judgement by Michelangelo in Sistine chapel.


Renaissance becomes Baroque

Inquisition continues.

Introduction of the modern calendar.

Pius V (1566-1572)

Gregorius XIII (1572-1585)

Clement VIII (1592-1605)

  • Strong action against sale of clerical positions.
  • 1582 Introduction of the Gregorian calendar (which we use today!)
  • Giordano Bruno,
    Philosopher. 1548-1600 Burned at the stake at Campo de Fiori square.
    A Dominican monk who perfected Copernican theory (the sun as centre of the solar system).
  • 1550 Villa Giulia (now the Etruscan museum)
  • St. Peters dome.
  • Church of Il Gesu'
  • Lateran palace
  • 1589 Piazza del Popolo
  • Carracci frescoes in Farnese Palace


Inquisition continues & Galileo brought to trial.

Wars against the infidel Turks.

Height of Baroque period.

Urban VIII (1623-1644)

Innocent X


Innocent XI (1676-1689)

Innocent XII (1691-1700)

  • Urban VIII supports France in the 30 years war against Germany and Spain.
  • 1631 Astrology and Astronomy condemned.
  • Innocent XI supports Austria, Poland and Venice against the Turks.
  • Caravaggio, painter. 1571-1610.
  • Gianlorenzo Bernini, sculptor 1598-1680. Baroque sculptor and architect. Directed the works on St. Peters.
  • Francesco Borromini, sculptor and architect. 1599-1667
  • Galileo Galilei delivered to the Holy Inquisition and forced to repent.
  • 1600 Caravaggio's paintings in Santa Maria del Popolo church
  • 1630 Bernini's awning ifor the altar at St. Peter's &
  • St. Peter's square (1656)
  • 1634 Borromini's church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane

Loss of Power of the Church. European Cultural and Artistic development moves Northwards.


Baroque fades to Neo-Clacissism, Rococo.

Romanticism is inspired by Rome's glories of the past.

Clement XII (1730-1740)

Clement XIV (1769-1774)

Pius VI


  • 1789-1799 Proclamation of the Roman Republic in the wake of the French revolution.
  • 1798-1801 War with France. The Pope is made prisoner.
  • 1773 The Jesuit order is disbanded for its excessive political influence having already been prohibited by various European states.
  • Goethe, Turner, Shelley, Keats, Byron & the "Grand Tour" make Rome a center of inspiration for European Romanticism.
  • 1701 Capitoline Museum founded by Pope Clement
  • 1726 Spanish steps
  • 1762 Trevi Fountain
  • 1790 Canova's tomb for Clement XIII
  • First excavations of the Forum by Pius VI.


War against Garibaldi and unification of Italy.

Dogma of Papal Infallibility

Rome capital of Italy.


Pius VII (1800-1823)

Pius IX (1846-1878)

King Victor Emanuel - King of unified Italy.

  • 1808-1811 Rome is part of the French empire.
  • The Pope is Napoleon's prisoner.
  • 1814 Treaty of Vienna. The Papal state is restored.
  • Garibaldi's annex of Rome to Italy is resisted with aid of the French but eventually lost when France pulls out (Franco-Prussian war).
  • End of the Holy Roman Germanic Empire after 1000 years.
  • 1854 Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
  • 1870 Dogma of Papal Infallibility
  • 1870 End of the Vatican state and dominions.
  • 1871 The Pope retires behind the Vatican walls.
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi, mercenary fighter. Leader of the "Red Shirts" who played a fundamental role in the expulsion of the Austrians and unification of Italy (1807-1882)
  • Pincio Gardens by Giovanni Valadier
  • 1887 Piazza della Republica following contour of an exedra in Nero's garden
  • 1899 The imposing Palazzo di Giustizia (Law courts)


The church is recognised as an independent state.

Italian post-war politics develop Bizantine complexity and instability. All focused on keeping Communism out of power. Power sharing leads to general corruption.

King Victor Emanuel

Benito Mussolini + King VE

Various Presidents (post war)

  • 1922 The Lateran Treaty recognises Vatican state independence and awards indemnity for its lost possessions.
  • 1965 The Second Vatican council proposes efforts to re-unite Christian faiths.
  • Paul VI puts an end to the "Holy Inquisition" and changes the name of its chief organs to "Congregation for the doctrine of the faith"
  • 1981 Assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II
  • Benito Mussolini. Politician and Dictator (1883-1945)
  • Pius XI (1922-1939)
  • Paul VI (1963-1978)
  • John XXIII (1958-1963)
  • John Paul II (1978-2005). First non- Italian Pope in 400 years.
  • Pope Benedict XVI
  • 1885-1901 Altare della Patria (the "Wedding Cake" altar to unknown soldiers)
  • Foro Italico (1936)
  • EUR development of Rome (1939-58)
  • Restoration of the Sistine Chapel (1994)
  • Tombs of the Kings of Italy in the Pantheon

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Hit Countersince xii/x/mmvii Please note, all information in this timeline is provided to the best of our knowledge and is intended as a guide only. It is not to be used for any purpose other than satisfying personal interest. We do not provide any warranty as to the absolute factual correctness of the contents of this document and we withhold the right to correct and amend the contents at any time. Should you feel there is any imprecision in the document's contents  you are invited to inform us by email so that the timeline of roman history may be corrected.

This timeline of roman history was written by Giovanni Milani-Santarpia for www.mariamilani.com - Rome apartments